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by Gromward Hammerfist
'The art of building a tunnel lies in the nature of dwarfes.' That's what my grand grand grandfather used to say. First of all I'd like to give you a small historical review of tunnelling. .....<you skip the first 1000 pages containing dwarfen tunnelling history>.
Repairing collapsed tunnels:
Equipment: Pick, tree or bricklayers kit
Before picking away the rubble you need to place a buttress otherwise the tunnel will collapse over and over again. If you don't have a matching tree at hand you could still build a brickwall to stabilize the tunnel. Good luck!
Equipment: Wood, wooden ties, hammer, nails, metal fitting
For each missing part (on the basis of a standard rail) I recommend to use three pieces of wood. Lock them in position by at least 6 nails. For the rail itself use a saw on a piece of wood to build your wooden ties. Then place two metal fittings on them and you can make your first ride on your new rail. Congratulations!
Building a rail on lava:
I advice not to try that until you have at least 20 years experience in rail construction......<Well, seems like you don't match the premises.>
Adventuring old tunnels:
Be aware that our kind mastered the art of tunnelling. It may take you a whole life to understand the techniques that are used and it takes generations to know all the tunnels of a mine and all their exits. You even may find an exit that you never expected to.
To sum up
If you are no dwarf don't even try to think that you have a chance of mastering the art of tunnelling. If you are a dwarf I wish you good luck and don't abandon faith. There is a light at the end of the tunnel.